The revolution, which consisted mainly of strikes throughout the Russian empire, came to an end when Nicholas II promised reforms, including the adoption of a Russian constitution and the establishment of an elected legislature. However, once order was restored, the czar nullified most of these reforms, and in Lenin was again forced into exile. Lenin opposed World War Iwhich began inas an imperialistic conflict and called on proletariat soldiers to turn their guns on the capitalist leaders who sent them down into the murderous trenches.
Since the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Russian Tsars had followed a fairly consistent policy of drawing more political power away from the nobility and into their own hands. This centralization of authority in the Russian state had usually been accomplished in one of two ways--either by simply taking power from the nobles and braving their opposition Ivan the Terrible was very good at thisor by compensating the nobles for decreased power in government by giving them greater power over their land and its occupants.
Serfdom, as this latter system was known, had increased steadily in Russia from the time of Ivan the Terrible, its inventor. By the time of Catherine the Great, the Russian Tsars enjoyed virtually autocratic rule over their nobles.
However, they had in a sense purchased this power by granting those nobles virtually autocratic power over the serfs, who by this time had been reduced to a state closer to slavery than to peasantry.
By the nineteenth century, both of these relationships were under attack. In the Decembrist revolt ina group of young, reformist military officers attempted to force the adoption of a constitutional monarchy in Russia by preventing the accession of Nicholas I.
They failed utterly, and Nicholas became the most reactionary leader in Europe.
Nicholas' successor, Alexander II, seemed by contrast to be amenable to reform. Inhe abolished serfdom, though the emancipation didn't in fact bring on any significant change in the condition of the peasants. As the country became more industrialized, its political system experienced even greater strain.
Attempts by the lower classes to gain more freedom provoked fears of anarchy, and the government remained extremely conservative. As Russia became more industrialized, larger, and far more complicated, the inadequacies of autocratic Tsarist rule became increasingly apparent.
By the twentieth century conditions were ripe for a serious convulsion. At the same time, Russia had expanded its territory and its power considerably over the nineteenth century.
Its borders extended to Afghanistan and China, and it had acquired extensive territory on the Pacific coast.
The foundation of the port cities of Vladivostok and Port Arthur there had opened up profitable avenues for commerce, and the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway constructed from linked the European Russia with its new eastern territories.
In Nicholas II acceded to the throne. He was not the most competent of political leaders, and his ministers were almost uniformly reactionaries. To make matters worse, the increasing Russian presence in the far east provoked the hostility of Japan.
In January ofthe Japanese attacked, and Russia experienced a series of defeats that dissolved the tenuous support held by Nicholas' already unpopular government. Nicholas was forced to grant concessions to the reformers, including most notably a constitution and a parliament, or Duma.
The power of the reform movement was founded on a new and powerful force entered Russian politics. The industrialization of the major western cities and the development of the Batu oil fields had brought together large concentrations of Russian workers, and they soon began to organize into local political councils, or soviets.
It was in large part the power of the soviets, united under the Social Democratic party, that had forced Nicholas to accept reforms in After the war with Japan was brought to a close, Nicholas attempted to reverse the new freedoms, and his government became more reactionary than ever.Mar 10, · Russia signalled her withdrawal from World War One soon after the October Revolution of , and the country turned in on itself with a bloody civil war between the Bolsheviks and the.
This is the major lesson of the October revolution." 'Bolshevism: The Road to Revolution' is a comprehensive history of the Bolshevik Party, from it's early beginnings through to the seizure of power in October The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicolas II of Russia, and replaced his government with the Russian Provisional caninariojana.comr, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension.
It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular.A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social, economic, and political relations. Bolshevik: Bolshevik, member of a wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, which, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia (October ) and became the dominant political power in that country.
Learn more about the history and beliefs of the Bolsheviks in this article. The October Revolution (also called the Bolshevik Revolution) overturned the interim provisional government and established the Soviet Union. The October Revolution was a much more deliberate event, orchestrated by a small group of people.
Summary. By November the Provisional Government was in complete collapse. In the meantime, the Bolshevik party, helped by German money, had built up an efficient party organisation, a brilliant propaganda machine, and a powerful private army (the Red Guards).