Overview[ edit ] When an elastic material is deformed due to an external force, it experiences internal resistance to the deformation and restores it to its original state if the external force is no longer applied. There are various elastic modulisuch as Young's modulusthe shear modulusand the bulk modulusall of which are measures of the inherent elastic properties of a material as a resistance to deformation under an applied load.
Generally any change in price will have two effects: The effect is reversed for elastic goods. The quantity effect An increase in unit price will tend to lead to fewer units sold, while a decrease in unit price will tend to lead to more units sold.
For inelastic goods, because of the inverse nature of the relationship between price and quantity demanded i.
But in determining whether to increase or decrease prices, a firm needs to know what the net effect will be. Elasticity provides the answer: The percentage change in total revenue is approximately equal to the percentage change in quantity demanded plus the percentage change in price.
One change will be positive, the other negative. As a result, the relationship between PED and total revenue can be described for any good: Goods necessary to survival can be classified here; a rational person will be willing to pay anything for a good if the alternative is death.
For example, a person in the desert weak and dying of thirst would easily give all the money in his wallet, no matter how much, for a bottle of water if he would otherwise die. His demand is not contingent on the price. Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue increases, and vice versa.
Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue falls, and vice versa.
Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue falls to zero. This situation is typical for goods that have their value defined by law such as fiat currency ; if a five-dollar bill were sold for anything more than five dollars, nobody would buy it, so demand is zero.
Hence, as the accompanying diagram shows, total revenue is maximized at the combination of price and quantity demanded where the elasticity of demand is unitary.
The linear demand curve in the accompanying diagram illustrates that changes in price also change the elasticity: Effect on tax incidence[ edit ] When demand is more inelastic than supply, consumers will bear a greater proportion of the tax burden than producers will.
For example, when demand is perfectly inelastic, by definition consumers have no alternative to purchasing the good or service if the price increases, so the quantity demanded would remain constant. Hence, suppliers can increase the price by the full amount of the tax, and the consumer would end up paying the entirety.
In the opposite case, when demand is perfectly elastic, by definition consumers have an infinite ability to switch to alternatives if the price increases, so they would stop buying the good or service in question completely—quantity demanded would fall to zero.
As a result, firms cannot pass on any part of the tax by raising prices, so they would be forced to pay all of it themselves.
More generally, then, the higher the elasticity of demand compared to PES, the heavier the burden on producers; conversely, the more inelastic the demand compared to PES, the heavier the burden on consumers.
The general principle is that the party i. Optimal pricing[ edit ] Among the most common applications of price elasticity is to determine prices that maximize revenue or profit.
Constant elasticity and optimal pricing[ edit ] If one point elasticity is used to model demand changes over a finite range of prices, elasticity is implicitly assumed constant with respect to price over the finite price range.
The equation defining price elasticity for one product can be rewritten omitting secondary variables as a linear equation.Because the elasticity of a material is described in terms of a stress–strain relation, it is essential that the terms stress and strain be defined without ambiguity.
Typically, two types of relation are considered. In principle, Lojban may be written in any orthographic system as long as it satisfies the required regularities and unambiguities. Some of the reasons for such elasticity would be as follows.
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