While I understand that it may be difficult to avoid all products, any effort you make to cut back on purchasing from these companies will save the lives of many animals including cats, dogs, guinea pigs, mice, monkeys, pigs, rabbits, rats, sheep and other innocent animals from pain, cruelty and death. Yet there are around alternative methods to test product without using animals — and many successful companies round the world use these alternative methods.
Why are primates needed in research and safety testing? Only few candidate pharmaceuticals are actually tested on primates Source: Understanding animal research 3. Selection of non- rodent species for toxicological studies and rationale for using NHPs Safety testing of chemicals is performed by a combination of many different approaches including animal experimentation.
Whereas for industrial chemicals, toxicity testing in non- rodents is not required, inclusion of a non- rodent species is required in the safety assessment of pharmaceuticals.
However, most of the safety testing for pharmaceuticals is also performed in rodents. Furthermore, non-animal methods play an important role in candidate drug selection and selection for further testing in animals, as well as for the selection of the animal species Sietsema and Schwen, It needs to be noted that only a very small percentage of pharmaceuticals initially selected for further development are finally introduced into the marketplace since they fail on the bases of lack of efficacy or unwanted toxic effects predicted by the safety testing.
While safety testing of new pharmaceuticals and other medical products represents one of the major uses of NHPsonly few candidate pharmaceuticals are actually tested in NHPs. Normally, there is no routine requirement for the use of NHPs as a second species.
Animal safety testing of pharmaceuticals is intended to safeguard human subjects used in the clinical trial studies through risk assessment based on the results of animal experiments. It states that the wellbeing of the human subject should take precedence over the interests of science and society.
International regulatory authorities including the European regulatory authorities therefore require that the safety of a new medicinal product is supported by a variety of non-clinical data prior to the start of clinical studies.
The safety guidelines are written to ensure that duplication of studies is not required for various regions in the world. In Europe, medical products tested in NHPs over recent years include all classes of pharmaceuticals and the main reason is the fact that no other species showed the same primary pharmacodynamic response.
NHPs are also selected when they represented a well-established model for pharmaceuticals of that class or are the most relevant species for detecting known side effects. The species for toxicity testing selected based on its similarities to humans with regard to pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, including biotransformation and in certain cases also where anatomical similarities are essential.
The use of a non- rodent species for the characterisation of new medicinal products aims at limiting the uncertainty in the extrapolation process fromanimaltoxicity data to the humansituation. Such uncertainties are species variation, scaling from small, short-lived animals to large, long- lived species, and use of a homogeneous animal population NCB, Dogs are most frequently used as the non-rodent species, and NHPs are only used when testing is considered essential for safety assessment.
The scientific requirements specific to the substance include: Use of a well characterised species may be quicker and require fewer animals Unknown and contradictory neurophysiological sensitivity meant to reflect differences in suffering, harm etc of the species e.
According to all these recommendations, NHPs should only be used when it is scientifically demonstrated that none of the other non- rodent species commonly used in safety testing is appropriate for the purpose of the study. To illustrate, safety testing in the NHP may be preferred over that in other mammalian species in the following cases: Due to the similar menstrual cycle and the anatomy and physiology of the mammary gland of NHP females and human females, NHPs cynomolgus monkeys are the more pertinent species in term of predictivity of relevant reproductive effects Buse et al.
Regarding the ocular system, the retina of NHP and man show some unique features e. NHPs are less susceptible to vomiting than dogs. Thus, pharmaceuticals with an emetic effect in the dog may be tested in the monkey Weber, Vomiting does not only limit exposure of the pharmaceutical administered, but is also a major hurdle to accurately characterise early effects on behaviour and on the cardiovascular system.
The blood coagulation system of NHP is more similar to humans than that of any other species Abildgaard et al. NHPs are the most appropriate animals to characterise safety of many biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, especially monoclonal antibodiessince the most relevant species for testing is selected based on species-specific aspects of the immune system.
Historically, non-primate species have been used for reproductive toxicity studies, generally mice, rats and rabbits. However, rodents and rabbits are not necessarily the most accurate predictor of teratogenicity or reproductive toxicity in humans due to differences in placental anatomy and number of foetuses.
In addition, they are not suitable models for all aspects of human reproductive toxicity, specifically for the investigation of agents suspected or known to interfere with the menstrual cycle.
In such cases, NHPs may be more predictive for human toxicity. The male cynomolgus is also a good model of male fertility in specific cases Ehmcke et al.
Rodents can also not be used to assess the safety of novel hormonal intrauterine devices or cognitive dysfunction associated with the menopause Schlatt et al. The need for NHPs in specific aspects of reproductive toxicity testing is exemplified with lenalidomide, a compound recently approved to treat multiple myeloma.
Lenalidomide is structurally related to thalidomide, a known human teratogen that caused severe birth defects during the late s and early s when given to pregnant women suffering from morning sickness. In rodent reproductive toxicity studies, lenalidomide did not induce teratogenic effects.
In rabbits, although reproductive toxicity was evident, no limb abnormalities were observed, while in a group of animals treated with high doses of thalidomide, there was a significant incidence of multiple limb abnormalities Revlimid, EPAR.Ethical treatment of animals in applied animal behaviour research.
The use of animals in such studies does, however, raise important ethical issues. Many applied behaviour studies are non-invasive and require simply observing animals in the environment that they would normally be found.
But, other studies might require manipulation of.
APA does not provide specific guidelines for the maintenance of psychological well-being of research animals, as procedures that are appropriate for a particular species may not be for others.
techniques must be used on laboratory animals whenever possible. Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in. Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research was developed by the American Psychological Association Committee on Animal Research and Ethics in Members on the committee were Gary Dunbar, PhD, Jennifer Higa, PhD, Theresa Jones, PhD, Barbara Kaminski, PhD, Scott Robinson, PhD, Rodney Swain, PhD.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the model organism will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. The use of animals in such studies does, however, raise important ethical issues.
Many applied behaviour studies are non-invasive and require simply observing animals in the environment that they would normally be found.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
This approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments.