Limited, ModipuramMeerut Abstract Granulation of a powder or mixture of powder is done in order to improve flow, uniformity of contents, better compressibility, improve density and to aid pharmaceutical dosing of the actives. The review article updates about the latest developments in technologies behind most commonly used wet granulation process.
From powder[ edit ] The granulation process combines one or more powder particles and forms a granule that will allow tableting to be within required limits.
It is the process of collecting particles together by creating bonds between them.
Bonds are formed by compression or by using a binding agent. Granulation is extensively used in the pharmaceutical industryfor manufacturing of tablets and pellets.
This way predictable and repeatable process is possible and granules of consistent quality can be produced. Granulation is carried out for various reasons, one of which is to prevent the segregation of the constituents of powder mix. Segregation is due to differences in the size or density of the components of the mix.
An ideal granulation will contain all the constituents of the mix in the correct proportion in each granule and segregation of granules will not occur.
Many powders, because of their small size, irregular shape or surface characteristics, are cohesive and do not flow well. Granules produced from such a cohesive system will be larger and more isodiametric roughly sphericalboth factors contributing to improved flow properties.
Some powders are difficult to compact even if a readily compactable adhesive is included in the mix, but granules of the same powders are often more easily compacted.
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This is associated with the distribution of the adhesive within the granule and is a function of the method employed to produce the granule. For example, if one were to make tablets from granulated sugar versus powdered sugarpowdered sugar would be difficult to compress into a tablet and granulated sugar would be easy to compress.
These small particles would have to be compressed very slowly for a long period of time to make a worthwhile tablet. Unless the powdered sugar is granulated, it could not efficiently be made into a tablet that has good tablet characteristics such as uniform content or consistent hardness.
Two types of granulation technologies are employed: Wet granulation[ edit ] In wet granulation, granules are formed by the addition of a granulation liquid onto a powder bed which is under the influence of an impeller in a high-shear granulatorscrews in a twin screw granulator  or air in a fluidized bed granulator.
The agitation resulting in the system along with the wetting of the components within the formulation results in the aggregation of the primary powder particles to produce wet granules. Typical liquids include waterethanol and isopropanol either alone or in combination. The liquid solution can be either aqueous based or solvent-based.
Aqueous solutions have the advantage of being safer to deal with than other solvents. Water mixed into the powders can form bonds between powder particles that are strong enough to lock them together. However, once the water dries, the powders may fall apart. Therefore, water may not be strong enough to create and hold a bond.
In such instances, a liquid solution that includes a binder pharmaceutical glue is required. Povidonewhich is a polyvinyl pyrrolidone PVPis one of the most commonly used pharmaceutical binders. PVP is dissolved in water or solvent and added to the process. This process results in the formation of granules.
The process can be very simple or very complex depending on the characteristics of the powders, the final objective of tablet making, and the equipment that is available.
In the traditional wet granulation method the wet mass is forced through a sieve to produce wet granules which are subsequently dried.
Wet granulation is traditionally a batch process in the pharmaceutical production, however, the batch type wet granulations are foreseen to be replaced more and more by continuous wet granulation in the pharmaceutical industry in the future.
The shift from batch to continuous technologies has been recommended by the Food and Drug Administration. In the extruder the materials are mixed and granulated due to the intermesh of the screws, especially at the kneading elements.
Forming granules without moisture requires compacting and densifying the powders. In this process the primary powder particles are aggregated under high pressure. A swaying granulator or a roll compactor can be used for the dry granulation.
Dry granulation can be conducted under two processes; either a large tablet slug is produced in a heavy duty tabletting press or the powder is squeezed between two counter-rotating rollers to produce a continuous sheet or ribbon of material.
When a tablet press is used for dry granulation, the powders may not possess enough natural flow to feed the product uniformly into the die cavity, resulting in varying density.
The roller compactor granulator-compactor uses an auger -feed system that will consistently deliver powder uniformly between two pressure rollers.Melt granulation is a size enlargement process in which the addition of a binder that melts or softens at relatively low temperatures (about 60°C) is used to achieve agglomeration of solid.
Granulation is the process of forming of grains or granules from a powdery or solid substance, producing a granular caninariojana.com is applied in several technological processes in chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
Typically, granulation involves agglomeration of fine particles into larger granules, typically of size range between and mm depending on their subsequent use.
Hot-melt granulation is an agglomeration technique where granules are obtained by either softening or melting binders that are heated to near or above their melting point (Barbara Van Melkebeke et al, ).
Melt granulation is a size enlargement process in which the addition of a binder that melts or softens at relatively low temperatures (about 60°C) is used to achieve agglomeration of solid. 4 Definition Granulation or also called agglomeration means an accumulation of very fine particles to bigger units in a strong matrix.
You find agglomerates or granules not only in the industry, also at home, caninariojana.comhere medicine. In situ fluidized hot melt granulation was examined for controlled release.. Glyceryl palmito-stearate was used as non-conventional meltable binder.
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